This research is produced to find out Malaysians current understanding and perceptions of stalking and stalking-related behaviors. It is to understand the common relationships between victim and alleged perpetrators, as well as to understand underlying reasons these cases go unreported.

Sampling

The survey was administered to Vase.ai’s online panel using an active quota sampling-method, where only people contacted are allowed to participate. Respondents aged 18 years old and above were quota sampled according to census statistics by Race, Gender, Age and Region of residence.

Vase.ai’s online panel ensures duplicate entries are prevented by the use of unique survey links and the limitation of one entry per link. Identifying demographic information was cross-validated with Vase.ai’s existing information on the survey respondent. Speed and straight line checking were also performed to exclude low quality responses.

Weighting

Weights were constructed to improve the representativeness of the survey sample. Six demographic characteristics were used to ensure consistency with the actual population and reduce bias from non-random sampling: race, gender, age, state, occupation, household income, and urbanity (1).

Iterative proportional fitting (raking) - one of the most standard weighting methods - was used. The maximum weight value used was set to 5 in line with recommended practices(2). Chi-square test was used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the weighted data compared to actual demographic proportions.

All demographic variables passed at the p = 0.01 level except for age, where those 65 and above are underrepresented by 5%. Weights were not increased due to possible over-inflation of outliers.

Limitations

Individuals aged 65 and above are underrepresented, likely due to lower rates of Internet usage among those above 60 (3).

References

  1. Population distributions were obtained from the 2010 Malaysian Census, Labour Force Survey and the Institute of Labour Market Information and Analysis by the Department of Statistics, Malaysia
  2. DeBell, Matthew and Jon A. Krosnick. 2009. “Computing Weights for American National Election Study Survey Data.” Stanford University.
  3. Malaysian Communications and Media Commission. 2018 "Internet Users Survey".

Some Insights from the research:

  • 51% of Malaysians have heard of stalking before and think it is wrong, while 21% have heard of it and do not think it is wrong.
  • 43% of Malaysians share that in more than one occasion, they have been followed or watched from a distance.
  • 63% of Malaysians who were watched or followed from a distance say the person who did this was a stranger, while 26% say it is an acquaintance, and 14% say it is a relative.
  • Malaysians who say they were spied on by people using listening devices, a camera or GPS say the alleged perpetrator was a stranger (33%), a relative (27%), and a current spouse (18%).
  • 48% of Malaysians say they have experienced acts of stalking in the past one year.
  • The top 3 negative actions from alleged stalkers are spreading negative rumors about the victim (50%), spreading negative rumors about someone close to the victim (28%), and spreading negative rumors about the victims family (15%).
  • 58% of Malaysians who received threats from their perpetrators say they believed and had thoughts that they or someone close to them may be harmed or killed.
  • 52% of Malaysians say they informed their close friend / family member / relative / colleague, when they were being followed or harassed, while 31% reported it to the police, and 26% say they did not take any action.

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This data is publicly available for use. If you are using this data, you would need to attribute the data to Vase.ai by stating "Survey conducted by Vase.ai in collaboration with Women's Aid Organisation (WAO). Find the data at "https://vase.ai/resources/anti-stalking/"

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This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/


The views and opinions expressed in the report above are an aggregate analysis taken from 1,008 respondents sampled according to Malaysian Census and Malaysian Internet Census data* as stated with the limitations and criteria above. This aggregate analysis does not necessarily mirror the values and opinions of Vase Technologies Sdn Bhd (1152290-M). Vase Technologies is the operator of a platform to collect user opinions, and as such will not take any liability for the statements above. In case of any damages or other liabilities arising, no party can be liable as the data above is taken in aggregate.